Periodontal disease ranks as a major complication of diabetes mellitus. But is a patient that suffers from type 2 diabetes more likely to actually develop periodontal disease when compared to a patient that suffers from type 1 diabetes? A recent study conducted by the American Dental Association sought to answer this important question that could determine how your dentist in Milwaukie, Dr. Sue Walker, treats her patients.
As these types of diabetes develop very differently, understanding potential differences in the clinical variables of the two conditions may help patients better manage and prevent periodontal disease. Researchers discovered that patients suffering from type 2 diabetes were more likely to develop gingivitis and periodontitis than patients with type 1 diabetes.
“Periodontal disease prevalence was higher in patients with type 2 diabetes, and it is associated with age progression, duration of disease, and poor glycemic control, regardless of the type of diabetes,” concluded researchers.
Age Plays a Factor
Periodontal disease involves a complex interchange between oral bacteria and a patient’s response to that bacteria. Systemic conditions like diabetes mellitus also can impact a patient’s periodontium. Periodontal disease is the sixth most common cause of chronic complications related to diabetes, noted researchers.
However, as the issues that lead to the development of different types of diabetes are not the same, researchers attempted to discover if patients with type 2 or type 1 diabetes were more likely to develop periodontal disease.
As part of their study, researchers involved nearly 290 patients: 102 with types 1, 103 with type 2 diabetes, and 83 patients in a control group that did not have either form of the disease. The participants were then screened for periodontal disease for the criteria laid out by the American Dental Association. The study excluded participants who has received periodontal treatment within the last six months.
The patients suffering from type 1 diabetes were typically younger than those with type 2. None of the type 1 patients smoked, while 30 percent of the type 2 diabetes patients did. Roughly 54 percent of the type 1 diabetes patients were men, compared with 63 percent of the type 2 patients.
The patients with type 2 had a rate of periodontal disease more than double that of patients with type 1. However, the researchers also discovered the factors that affected development of the disease in these patients also include age and blood glucose levels.
The type 1 patients with periodontal disease were typically older than those type 1 patients without periodontal disease. They had also been diagnosed with diabetes for a longer period of time.
The type 2 diabetes patients with periodontal disease also were also older than type 2 diabetes patients without periodontal disease. They had been diagnosed with diabetes for a longer period of time and had higher blood glucose levels. Patients with type 2 diabetes presented positive associations with severe periodontal disease as a result of tobacco use and more advanced age, noted researchers.
The Type of Diabetes Important
Periodontal disease is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes than in those with type 2, concluded researchers.
“After adjustments performed by multivariate analysis, we found that the presence of type 2 diabetes increased the chance of have periodontal disease,” wrote researchers.
If you suffer from diabetes, it’s important that you tell your dentist in Milwaukie, Dr. Walker, about your condition. Patients with diabetes may need to schedule more frequent exams and cleanings to help protect their oral health against the impact of diabetes and gum diseases.